presidencialismo de coalizão

John Merriman, “A History of Modern Europe”:

“But sovereigns needed to woo nobles to gain their compliance. In exchange for loyalty and in many cases service, rulers confirmed noble privileges and allowed them to continue to dominate state and local government. “Tables of ranks” dividing nobles into distinct grades or ranks were established at the turn of the century by the kings of Sweden, Denmark, Prussia, and Russia, making it clear that noble privileges were bestowed by monarchs. Louis XIV of France (ruled 1643-1715) asserted the right to monitor the legitimacy of all titles and even to confiscate noble estates. In 1668, he ordered the investigation of “false” nobles holding dubious titles. These measures helped the king maintain the loyalty of nobles, some of whom resented those who held titles they considered suspect. The great noble families thereafter enjoyed an even greater monopoly over the most lucrative and prestigious royal and ecclesiastical posts.”

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